This is a medical specialty responsible for studying the vessels composing the circulatory and lymphatic systems, including the vasculature components, such as veins, arteries, capillaries and lymph vessels. It also studies the diseases associated with these systems.



  • Chronic venous insufficiency is characterized by congestion and pooling of blood, chronic leg swelling, darkening or lightning pigmentation of the skin, due to the progressive increments in venous pressure and the appearance of ulcerations in the lower extremities, known as venous stasis ulcers.
  • Deep vein thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot in a vein located deep within the tissue. This condition is more common in lower extremities but can also occur in upper extremities, as well as in lower extremities.
  • Superficial vein thrombosis or thrombophlebitis is the formation of a blood clot in a vein near the skin surface.
  • Varicose veins are abnormal blood vessels and are found dilated due to a weak vessel walls.
  •  Venous stasis ulcers are open wounds that do not heal and tend to reopen easily.



Dr. Vázquez Pacheco Francisco


Translated by: Dr. Betsy Cervantes Coronado



Anesthesiology is defined as the medical practice, dedicated to relieving pain and to the complete and integral care of the surgical patient, before, during and after surgical procedures. As a vital component of the surgical team, the anesthesiologist is responsible for the well-being of the anesthetized patient during the surgical procedure. The anesthesiologist becomes the patient’s voice in the operating room, as well as having under his/her care the treatment of acute and chronic pain due to non-surgically related causes.


The types of anesthesia can be divided into three main categories: general, regional and local.


1.      General Anesthesia: An unconscious state is produce by way of administering drugs intravenously or by inhalator or by both at the same time. General anesthesia pursues various objectives: analgesic or painkilling effect; protection against adverse reactions caused by pain; loss of consciousness by way of hypnotic or sleep inducing pharmaceuticals, which sedate the patient and prevent anxiety; Muscle relaxation by way of muscle relaxing pharmaceuticals that allow artificial ventilation by mechanical respirators that assure adequate oxygenation.

2.      Regional Anesthesia: This type of anesthesia desensitizes a large area, like an arm, leg or the lower half of the body. The anesthesiologist injects the anesthesia near a group of nerves, in such a way that the patient does not feel pain. A sedative may be administered to reduce anxiety. An example is an epidural which is a type of regional anesthesia commonly used to prevent child birth pain; this anesthesia is injected in the lumbar region of the spine and causes the loss of sensibility of the lower half of the body.

3.      Local Anesthesia: This form of anesthesia is used to desensitize only the part of the body that is in pain or that will undergo a surgical procedure. The patient is awake or conscious, but does not feel any pain. This anesthesia lasts for a very short period of time and is usually used for minor interventions or ambulatory procedures. Most of the time, a needle is used to inject the anesthetic under the skin or sometimes it is applied as a nasal aerosol or a gel.



  • Dr. Bernal Cano José Jaime
  • Dr. Montero Solano Eduardo Rodolfo
  • Dr. Rojas Valle Armando



Translated by: Dr. Betsy Cervantes Coronado